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Behavior

 

Way that it has to react an organism when it happens some alteration in your environment that affects to him, or within your organism.

The unicellular ones react to the stimuli of direct way, the multicellular ones are provided with cells specialized with low thresholds to the influences and transmit the answer to another point of the organism. These cells are the neurons, which in the most complex animals are abundant and are associate to a other receiving cells and organs.

CINESIS, is the increase of the activity of the individual. Immobilization, when the activity stays out with the stimuli.

Types of conduct

Stereotyped conduct

Learned conduct

Complex conduct

Stereotyped conduct

It is innate, can be a tactism by which all the organ moves in relation to a certain external stimulus. If one moves in the direction of the stimulus we will say that it is positive tactism if negative separates. The reflections are considered as stereotyped conducts and are distinguished of the tactisms in which first usually they extend the movement to a part of the organism.

Learned conduct

The learning is the modification of the stereotyped conduct or acquisition of new types of conduct. The criteria to distinguish the learned conduct of the modifications of the stereotyped one: a) the learning must be permanent, b) will not be permanent alteration in the conduct. The different degrees of learning discovered in the kingdom animal are: I live, tracking, agreement, collaboration and learning by attempt.

The habit is the simplest method of learning, is the complete elimination of the conduct stereotyped like result of a repeated stimulus; the tracking is observed in birds, of little duration; the preparation, the experiments of Paulov showed that a signidicado previous stimulus without finishes being important since it triggered answer, are deduced four laws here:

Law of contiguous, the stimuli associate must offer together in time and space.

Law of repetition, the conditional answer more and more takes control intense and of greater security to happen as they increase the sessions of training.

Law of the reinforcement, if the condicionador stimulus often appears without association with the normal stimulus the answer will be disappearing.

Law of interference, the agreement can disappear by new agreements that pertunban the original one.

Collaboration, happens when the animal influences the stimulus that receives or on the answer which it is used, the animal collaborates in the knowledge, the effort of this is one compensates. Learning by attempt, happens if the agreement by complica collaboration by introduction of different elements.

Some suppose that the learning depends on alterations in RNA molecules, this would confirm two experiments: a) ribonuclease disintegrates the RNA, if regeneration happens in means that contain ribonuclease, the memory is lost due that this penetrates in the organ by the cut with which the class of ARN of the learning is destroyed. b) the feeding with prey pieces also can cause the learning.

The faculty to learn in the vertebrates would follow east order: fish, amphibians, reptíles, birds and mammals.

Complex conduct

The reasoning is the faculty to use passed experiences, with logical deduction, to solve complicated problems new or ménos more.

ACTIVITIES RHYTMICALS

Some activities of the organisms appear during the life of rythmical form: many are repeated daily, others have seasonal character, others take place during the day, the night, ... Some animals seem arrhythmic with respect to the diurnal and nocturnal cycles, but it is necessary to think that it can have cycle of 24 hours of duration bound to internal mechanisms of the animal, are called circadian activities or circadian rythm. Others are related to longer periods, are the stationary activities, that have affinity with the hibernate, reproduction, migration; there are also lunar cycles or rates.

Rate or circadian activity

Many of the rythmical activities of the animals seem to be under the regulation of certain mechanisms that receive the name of synchronous biological clock with environmental factors. They think that this clock is an innate metabolic mechanism that can be started up by external factors.

Territory

For the extension of the territory of any species they influence certain factors: type of locomotion, type of feeding, the age of the alive being, the atmosphere.

RETURN OR MESSENGER

The animal has some sense that makes him recognize the territory within its limits, this faculty is called like messengerism, is to say the return from the animal to a strange place.

SEASONAL ACTIVITIES

They can have to the taken care of nesting and of young, hibernate. Because of the adverse conditions of average the many alive beings they enter a period of inactivity, which if it agrees with the winter defines as hibernate and if during the summer.

Hibernate, typical of animals of zones tempered in the season of lower temperatures and inaccessible water, the beginning of winter sopor and the duration is variable, in the decision of its beginning influence different environmental stimuli. During the hibernate there are many physiological alterations, it is reduced the temperature, it is reduced the metabolism, the respiratory rate, the speed of sanguineous circulation, the enzyme activity, they take refuge in places where the temperature is not inferior to the freezing point and where there is a certain humidity degree; to hibernar means to reduce the activity to the minimum.

Migrations, the alive beings are transferred from a place to another one like answer to different stimuli. We can that speak: immigrations and emigrations.

The migrations can be classified taking care of different points of view:

a) According to the necessity of the animal that these can as well be: climatic, nutritional, and gamétics. The climatic ones ocuren as a result of the variations of the climate in a certain place (fish). Nutritional due to the search of food and the drink. The gametics, motivated by the necessity to occupy an average one for the reproduction (salmon).

b) Time that lasts, the long temporary occur during years in a single sense, seasonal in the days of duration the short ones.

c) According to the duration and extension of the same ones, from latitude (of north to the south or the south to north), altitude, from summits to valleys, the premises (the rodents get to adapt to the rats poison).

All the forms of migration derive as a result of increasing the possibility of survival.

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