Way that it has to react an organism when it happens
some alteration in your environment that affects to him, or within
The unicellular ones react to the stimuli of direct
way, the multicellular ones are provided with cells specialized
with low thresholds to the influences and transmit the answer to
another point of the organism. These cells are the neurons, which
in the most complex animals are abundant and are associate to a
other receiving cells and organs.
CINESIS, is the increase of the activity of the
individual. Immobilization, when the activity stays out with the
Types of conduct
It is innate, can be a tactism by which all the
organ moves in relation to a certain external stimulus. If one moves
in the direction of the stimulus we will say that it is positive
tactism if negative separates. The reflections are considered as
stereotyped conducts and are distinguished of the tactisms in which
first usually they extend the movement to a part of the organism.
The learning is the modification of the stereotyped
conduct or acquisition of new types of conduct. The criteria to
distinguish the learned conduct of the modifications of the stereotyped
one: a) the learning must be permanent, b) will not be permanent
alteration in the conduct. The different degrees of learning discovered
in the kingdom animal are: I live, tracking, agreement, collaboration
and learning by attempt.
The habit is the simplest method of learning, is
the complete elimination of the conduct stereotyped like result
of a repeated stimulus; the tracking is observed in birds, of little
duration; the preparation, the experiments of Paulov showed that
a signidicado previous stimulus without finishes being important
since it triggered answer, are deduced four laws here:
Law of contiguous, the stimuli associate must offer
together in time and space.
Law of repetition, the conditional answer more
and more takes control intense and of greater security to happen
as they increase the sessions of training.
Law of the reinforcement, if the condicionador
stimulus often appears without association with the normal stimulus
the answer will be disappearing.
Law of interference, the agreement can disappear
by new agreements that pertunban the original one.
Collaboration, happens when the animal influences
the stimulus that receives or on the answer which it is used, the
animal collaborates in the knowledge, the effort of this is one
compensates. Learning by attempt, happens if the agreement by complica
collaboration by introduction of different elements.
Some suppose that the learning depends on alterations
in RNA molecules, this would confirm two experiments: a) ribonuclease
disintegrates the RNA, if regeneration happens in means that contain
ribonuclease, the memory is lost due that this penetrates in the
organ by the cut with which the class of ARN of the learning is
destroyed. b) the feeding with prey pieces also can cause the learning.
The faculty to learn in the vertebrates would follow
east order: fish, amphibians, reptíles, birds and mammals.
The reasoning is the faculty to use passed experiences,
with logical deduction, to solve complicated problems new or ménos
Some activities of the organisms appear during
the life of rythmical form: many are repeated daily, others have
seasonal character, others take place during the day, the night,
... Some animals seem arrhythmic with respect to the diurnal and
nocturnal cycles, but it is necessary to think that it can have
cycle of 24 hours of duration bound to internal mechanisms of the
animal, are called circadian activities or circadian rythm. Others
are related to longer periods, are the stationary activities, that
have affinity with the hibernate, reproduction, migration; there
are also lunar cycles or rates.
Rate or circadian activity
Many of the rythmical activities of the animals
seem to be under the regulation of certain mechanisms that receive
the name of synchronous biological clock with environmental factors.
They think that this clock is an innate metabolic mechanism that
can be started up by external factors.
For the extension of the territory of any species
they influence certain factors: type of locomotion, type of feeding,
the age of the alive being, the atmosphere.
RETURN OR MESSENGER
The animal has some sense that makes him recognize
the territory within its limits, this faculty is called like messengerism,
is to say the return from the animal to a strange place.
They can have to the taken care of nesting and
of young, hibernate. Because of the adverse conditions of average
the many alive beings they enter a period of inactivity, which if
it agrees with the winter defines as hibernate and if during the
Hibernate, typical of animals of zones tempered
in the season of lower temperatures and inaccessible water, the
beginning of winter sopor and the duration is variable, in the decision
of its beginning influence different environmental stimuli. During
the hibernate there are many physiological alterations, it is reduced
the temperature, it is reduced the metabolism, the respiratory rate,
the speed of sanguineous circulation, the enzyme activity, they
take refuge in places where the temperature is not inferior to the
freezing point and where there is a certain humidity degree; to
hibernar means to reduce the activity to the minimum.
Migrations, the alive beings are transferred from
a place to another one like answer to different stimuli. We can
that speak: immigrations and emigrations.
The migrations can be classified taking care of
different points of view:
a) According to the necessity of the animal that
these can as well be: climatic, nutritional, and gamétics.
The climatic ones ocuren as a result of the variations of the climate
in a certain place (fish). Nutritional due to the search of food
and the drink. The gametics, motivated by the necessity to occupy
an average one for the reproduction (salmon).
b) Time that lasts, the long temporary occur during
years in a single sense, seasonal in the days of duration the short
c) According to the duration and extension of the
same ones, from latitude (of north to the south or the south to
north), altitude, from summits to valleys, the premises (the rodents
get to adapt to the rats poison).
All the forms of migration derive as a result of
increasing the possibility of survival.