of the living beings
The most superficial examination on the alive beings
allows us to observe that they present great variations in all the
aspects, size, structure... By all it must have a system to name
them and to identify them.
The taxonomy is a branch of the botany and the
zoology that is in charge of the classification and nomenclature
of the alive beings of such form that the related alive beings between
if they are placed in a same group. The taxonomist must consider
at the time of applying a name to an alive being and assuring that
he has applied it correctly: that the used name has not been used
previously, must describe to that alive being with the greater number
of possible data so that another taxonomist can identify it later,
finally he must place the organism within a classification or a
group with which he has well-known or supposed relations.
The system to give name to the alive beings has
arisen throughout the centuries based on a developed method.
Aristotle (384-322 a.c.) it classified to the species
animals that knew themselves in their time being based on the external
characteristics of the animals. This system remained until century
XVIII. Aristotle distinguished two groups: animals provided with
blood and lacking animals of blood. This distribution in broad strokes
corresponded to the present classification in vertebrates and invertebrates.
These studies became serious with Linnaeus (1707-1778) which in
their work of the tenth edition "Natural System" then
makes the classification of 8500 plants and 4236 well-known animals.
As far as the animals it made two groups: "vertebrata"
that included four classes and "invertebrata" that included
two classes. The four classes would be the two Mamalia, birds, anfibea
and pisces whereas insecta and verms. As for the vertebrata the
classification keeps similarities with the present one. At the same
time Lamarck (1744-1829) being based on the classification of Linnaeus
it subdivided to the invertebrata in 10 classes, other authors made
other classifications until reaching the present one. Nowadays in
the kingdom animal 28 types are included, being the different opinion
of classification depending on the authors. In the vegetal kingdom
24 sistémicas units exist. In the work of Linnaeus a scientific
name was applied to the organisms that it identified. The scientific
name consisted of two Latin words or latinics of which first it
is the name of first generate and the second name of the species,
appears the binomial nomenclature. Linnaeus thought that a species
is determining to be alive that has been created of separated form
by a supernatural power and that had characteristics that differentiated
it from the others. To the similar species it grouped them in only
a sort, to the similar sorts grouped them in orders, classes and
the classes within a kingdom. Scientific names are used front to
the common ones, since these can have meaning different according
to the country and by the tendency from the universality of the
scientists. With the passage of time it appears a great diversity
of animals and plants as well as a great transmitted diversity of
caractéres to the descendants. The taxonomists began to understand
that the species are not created single nor isolated but that they
are the result in the inheritance within a same common trunk.
Taxon is defined, "taxon smaller is the one
of species", the species is a population or group of populations
formed by individuals in its natural habitat and with real or potential
capacity to cross itself, defines the sort like the group of species
that have narrow ancestral relations but that they are not able
to cross itself between if (except for exceptions). The sorts are
grouped in families, the families in orders, the orders in classes,
the classes in phylum and these in kingdom.