Science that deals with the study of the alive
beings in your environment, is to say to the type of relations between
the organisms and their environment.
It is divided in:
Autoecology, studies what surrounds to an individual,
its activities, interactions and their relations with means.
Sinecology, study or knowledge of the groups with
respect to the community.
- Population: group of individuals of any class biótic
- Community: All the populations that inhabit in a certain area
- Ecosystem: Biótic community more physical environment
- Habitat of a living being: place where ecological
- Niche lives: physical space played by the organism and also
its functional role within the community is to say the function
that carries out
- Biocenosis: biótic community
- Biosphere: Biological system greater call also ecosphere and
includes all the Earth organisms
- Biogeocenosis: Ecosystem
The organisms from the ecological point of view
can be classified in:
Holofitism or autotroph organisms, alive beings
who feed themselves by themselves, elaborate the nutrients from
organic matter and energy of the sun.
Holozoic or heterotrof organisms, depend indirectly
for their direct feeding or on the autotrophs.
PHYSICALS BASES OF THE LIFE
All the organisms depend on complex cycles and
without them they could not exist. So that these cycles take place
they must exist certain physical training conditionses (temperature,
The life passes between close limits of temperature,
the tolerated temperature depends on the considered alive being
and his different biological stages, of this form we have:
a) High temperature: protozoos and certain seeds
were found to temperatures of 85º, them alive beings the High
oscillates between 42º and 52º, are certain species of
seaweed that their High is of 4º, temperatures by you raise
of the principles would carry the death of the alive being.
b) Minimum Temperature: it depends on the adaptations
of the alive being, are alive beings (bacteria, leavenings, fungi)
who can survive -270º, those that they die in the point of
freezing of his liquids, those that has capacity to surpass the
room temperature that surrounds to him (Ectothermics); those that
maintain the temperature of their body at fixed level in spite of
the variations of external means (endothermic) and those that varies
their temperature within a margin (Heterotermes).
c) Optimal Temperature: one is between the lethal
limits of Maxima and minim and is the place where the vital processes
are carried out of more satisfactory form.
In most of beings alive, prolonged exhibitions
to principles or minims they produce adaptation.
Pressure and radiations
The alive beings distribute themselves from places
with high pressures to the deepest parts of the ocean. He is to
say from pressures of 0.5 kg to more than 9000 kg. The sun emits
radiations, from ultraviolet to longest.
They are the relations with the members of the
same species. The type of locomotion has influence in the type of
association between the individuals. Many associations of alive
beings at random seem to be the result of groupings that provide
advantages for the survival of the group (deer). The individuals
of a same species are associated to obtain mutual benefit and arise
the social organizations. In some there is work division and throughout
the evolution their physical structures specialize reason why in
a while given they do not exist single, independently of the social
hierarchies that also exist (bees, ants).
A certain area is going to be defended actively
by its occupants against the intrusión of other alive beings
(nest, ...), sometimes the single territory is defended during the
reproduction, the man is a territorial animal is to say to mark
It is the influence in the activity of an alive
being by the behavior of another alive being, the man has many techniques
of communication and the animals have similar but different schemes
according to the species.
Communication by scent, is the most primitive technique,
used to mark a territory, to defend themselves, for the communication
between sexes during the reproduction.
Tactile, own communication of the social groups,
some alive beings friccionan part of their body to recognize themselves.
Visual contact, appears in those alive beings that
they have well developed the visual organ.
Auditory communication, is the developed method
more of communication and with great varieties.
INTERESPECIFIC RELATIONS OR HETEROTIPIC
In the nature all alive being is related to members
of other species and can happen: if in the relation of two different
species effects are not exerted on any of the species because of
the other denominates neutralism, if the interaction provides benefits
for one of the species whereas in the other it does not influence
denominates commensalism, if the association produces damage for
one of them denominates parasitism or competition.
Amensalismo: when a species is harmed by the presence
from another one and to the other Operation does not happen anything
Competition, arises when one of the species has
difficulties in the food obtaining, lodging... and both have resemblances
biological necessities; parasitism, arises when the parasite obtains
benefits to expenses of the lodger without causing the death to
him; depredation, the species rapaz kills the prey and it is fed
Cooperation: when the individuals of different
species obtain benefit, although both can separately live (marine
crabs that has in their shells coelenterates)
Foresia: Association with unilateral benefit (flying
insects that takes nematodes in their legs)
Commensalism: When one sees beneficiary and another
one is not affected (insects that is in the nests)
Mutualism: Two individuals of different species
are bound obtaining mutual benefit
Symbiosis: When two species are associated to live
and they cannot do it the one without the other (lichens)