Biology is an old science from the point of view
of its beginnings but young from the point of view of the continuous
discoveries. The complexity of the alive matter make clear with
the discovery of the electron microscope has left and the study
of different weaves from the alive being.
As science Biology appears in Greece, being Soft
the first experimental fisiologo its study foundation basicamente
in nerves and animal glasses, of equal way that the human anatomy
with cadaveres of monkeys and pigs, did this thinking about a parallelism
between these animals and the man, causing who appeared mistakes
in their conclusions.
In century XVI detailed studies of all the alive
beings begin to be made. Vesalio study the structure and function
of the organs of the animals specially in the man. It mentioned
that the confidence in previous works had to be limited, being centered
in the personal experiences.
In century XVII the microscope is discovered and
Biology undergoes an important advance. Malpighi and Leewemhoek
study the structure of weaves, are observed the bacteria, protozoos
In century XIX, the advance of other branches also
causes another fort impulse for Biology, mainly at level of molecular
From the etymology point of view Biology means
study of the life, studying the forms that can adopt the alive beings,
their structure, function, reproduction, growth, organization and
relations with the means that surround them.
They are disciplines of Biology: the botany, study
of the plants; Taxonomy, the classification of the alive beings;
Zoology, study of the animals; Anatomy, study of the structure of
the alive beings; Physiology, study of the operation of the alive
being; Embryology, study of the development of the embryo; Genetics,
Ecology, Evolución... relations with the means that surround
The source of a scientific fact is in a rigorous
observation of the facts that we verified. The scientific discoveries
must be published, but with the validity that supposes the rigor
in the study and the reliability of the results.
The objective of Science is:
a) To find relation between the observed phenomenon
and the causes that produce them.
b) General principles that allow to relate effects
This is necessary to make it with the suitable
and following a Method Scientific. The scientific method part of
a work hypothesis that based on the obtained results can be changed
or no. The hypothesis as much more trustworthy will at the most
be verified is, but it cannot fall in the error to consider it a
truth absolute, in any case the hypotheses can become theories.
Webster defines the theory like: general principle
that is offered to verify the phenomena. A theory can predict new
scientific facts or new relations between the phenomena and has
to be exposed of clear and generalized form (Einstein).
An incorrect theory causes contradictions and is
asi same signal mistakes that two different theories or can more
explain a same phenomenon.
One of the goals to reach is to give explanation
to a causal system being used for it different methods like the
agreement, method differential. the statistics is important to achieve
the success in a study.
Nomenclature and biological units
With the purpose of obtaining the greater precision
possible and to have an acceptable system internationally it is
custom to use Latin or Greek terms to designate to species and recent
The accepted units more are: the micron that are
thousandth part of millimeter and the Amgstron that would be 1 mm
= 100000000 To this as far as length units, as far as units of weight
the microgram with the equivalence of 1 1000000 gr. = mcr, nanogramo
1 gr. = 1000000000 and picogram 1 gr. = 1000000000000, also in Biology
the Dalton is used, where dalton is the weight of the hydrogen atom,
(a water molecule dalton would be 18)