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History of Biology
The origin of the life
Diversity of the living beings
Theory of evolution
Behavior
Ecology
Genetics
Animal histology
Blod tissue  
Cytoplasm


History of Biology

 

Biology is an old science from the point of view of its beginnings but young from the point of view of the continuous discoveries. The complexity of the alive matter make clear with the discovery of the electron microscope has left and the study of different weaves from the alive being.

As science Biology appears in Greece, being Soft the first experimental fisiologo its study foundation basicamente in nerves and animal glasses, of equal way that the human anatomy with cadaveres of monkeys and pigs, did this thinking about a parallelism between these animals and the man, causing who appeared mistakes in their conclusions.

In century XVI detailed studies of all the alive beings begin to be made. Vesalio study the structure and function of the organs of the animals specially in the man. It mentioned that the confidence in previous works had to be limited, being centered in the personal experiences.

In century XVII the microscope is discovered and Biology undergoes an important advance. Malpighi and Leewemhoek study the structure of weaves, are observed the bacteria, protozoos and spermatozoa.

In century XIX, the advance of other branches also causes another fort impulse for Biology, mainly at level of molecular Biology.

From the etymology point of view Biology means study of the life, studying the forms that can adopt the alive beings, their structure, function, reproduction, growth, organization and relations with the means that surround them.

They are disciplines of Biology: the botany, study of the plants; Taxonomy, the classification of the alive beings; Zoology, study of the animals; Anatomy, study of the structure of the alive beings; Physiology, study of the operation of the alive being; Embryology, study of the development of the embryo; Genetics, Ecology, Evolución... relations with the means that surround them.

Scientific method

The source of a scientific fact is in a rigorous observation of the facts that we verified. The scientific discoveries must be published, but with the validity that supposes the rigor in the study and the reliability of the results.

The objective of Science is:

a) To find relation between the observed phenomenon and the causes that produce them.

b) General principles that allow to relate effects and others

This is necessary to make it with the suitable and following a Method Scientific. The scientific method part of a work hypothesis that based on the obtained results can be changed or no. The hypothesis as much more trustworthy will at the most be verified is, but it cannot fall in the error to consider it a truth absolute, in any case the hypotheses can become theories.

Webster defines the theory like: general principle that is offered to verify the phenomena. A theory can predict new scientific facts or new relations between the phenomena and has to be exposed of clear and generalized form (Einstein).

An incorrect theory causes contradictions and is asi same signal mistakes that two different theories or can more explain a same phenomenon.

One of the goals to reach is to give explanation to a causal system being used for it different methods like the agreement, method differential. the statistics is important to achieve the success in a study.

Nomenclature and biological units

With the purpose of obtaining the greater precision possible and to have an acceptable system internationally it is custom to use Latin or Greek terms to designate to species and recent discoveries.

The accepted units more are: the micron that are thousandth part of millimeter and the Amgstron that would be 1 mm = 100000000 To this as far as length units, as far as units of weight the microgram with the equivalence of 1 1000000 gr. = mcr, nanogramo 1 gr. = 1000000000 and picogram 1 gr. = 1000000000000, also in Biology the Dalton is used, where dalton is the weight of the hydrogen atom, (a water molecule dalton would be 18)

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